Ideological differences have created problems, especially with regard to human rights. The 2004 Afghan Constitution protects women`s rights, such as language and education, as well as freedom of the press, including freedom of expression, both oppressed under the Taliban regime in Afghanistan. Khalilzad, Ghani, Abdullah and several other senior Afghan officials all said that these rights should be protected   and not sacrificed in a peace agreement.  Afghanistan`s first lady, Rula Ghani, is committed to protecting women`s rights.  Afghan journalists have called for the press to be protected in all possible peace agreements.  A final peace agreement and the possible withdrawal of U.S. forces remain important priorities. The United States has deployed combat troops to Afghanistan for nearly two decades and has urgent interests in Afghanistan and abroad – including the fight and recovery of COVID-19 and competition from major powers like Russia and China. But the Americans must be aware that peace negotiations are likely to be long and difficult. As tempting as it is to withdraw U.S. forces without agreement, it would be a mistake, especially if it is the Taliban`s fault.
Withdrawing the United States from Afghanistan without a peace agreement would significantly increase the level of violence in Afghanistan, risk a growing regional war, provoke a humanitarian crisis, allow an Islamist extremist group to invade Kabul, and raise serious questions among allies about the reliability of the United States. After months of negotiations, the Hezb-i Islami Gulbuddin, the second national militant group after the Taliban, signed a peace agreement with the government of Afghan President Ashraf Ghani in Kabul. It was the first peace treaty since the start of the war in Afghanistan in 2001. Government officials hailed the agreement as a step towards peace and perhaps also as an agreement with the Taliban.  However, others have expressed concern about alleged war crimes committed by controversial leader Gulbuddin Hekmatyar. The agreement included the United States to move it from a list of “global terrorists” to the white list. Parts of Afghan society have protested the peace treaty because of its previous actions.  The U.S. ambassador to Afghanistan warned that a peace deal could risk the Taliban`s return to power, similar to the 1973 Paris Accords, which defeated the U.S.-backed South Vietnamese government in the case of Saigon.
  Pakistan warned that rising tensions in the Gulf region following the assassination of Iranian General Qasem Soleimani could affect the already delayed peace process between the United States and Afghanistan.  Groups such as the Islamic State of Chorasan could oppose the negotiations and try to attract disgruntled Taliban. The insurgency is not a homogeneous organization. These include other insurgent groups, drug trafficking organizations, tribes and militias, some of whom may strongly oppose a peace agreement. Even successful peace agreements have been threatened by spoilers who refuse to participate and feel more engaged in violence to achieve their goals, such as the Real Irish Republican Army in Northern Ireland and the National Liberation Army in Colombia. Both carried out attacks before, during and after the peace accords. The United States has reached an agreement with the Taliban, but considerable challenges remain, such as political power-sharing, the role of Islam and women`s rights in achieving intra-Afghan peace. These negotiations, which began just a month ago, already appear to be deadlocked, with Kabul and the Taliban even having the fundamental parameters of a peace agreement. The Afghan government could break down and trigger the end of negotiations. In February 2020, the Independent Electoral Commission announced that the incumbent President, Ashraf Ghani, had won 50.6 per cent of the vote in the September 2019 elections, making him the head of government Abdullah Abdullah, who had won 39.5 per cent of the vote.